For a normal functioning, the muscles require nerve signals. Hypotonia is a disease in which the patient has a decreased muscle tone. The nerves have a covering of myelin, which helps in insulating nerves and carrying messages from and towards the brain. If there is problem in the myelin and it becomes damaged, the normal transmission of signals through the nerves is disrupted and this causes hypotonia. Some connective tissue diseases like the Marfan syndrome can cause hypotonia.
In central hypotonia, the muscle tone becomes less when there is disruption or interruption in the nerve signals from the nervous system. In peripheral hypotonia, the muscle tone becomes less when the nerves between spine and muscles become damaged. Peripheral hypotonia also occurs when the communication between nerve ends and muscles becomes disrupted. It can also be due to muscle abnormalities. You must know about the causes of hypotonia.
Common Causes Of Hypotonia
Hypotonia affects some babies at birth. The cause of this type of hypotonia is cerebral palsy, which is a neurological problem that impairs the normal movement as well as coordination of the patient.
Brain disorders like brain and spine injury can cause hypotonia. Some patients who have brain infections such as meningitis can have hypotonia. Patients who have encephalitis can also have hyptotonia. Babies who suffer from brain diseases like kernicterus can have hypotonia.
Genetic diseases like the Down’s syndrome can cause hypotonia at birth. A child who suffers from this type of hypotonia does not have normal physical development and learning abilities. Genetic diseases like Tay-Sachs disease, Williams’s syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome can also cause hypotonia. Some inherited connective tissue diseases cause hypotonia. Marfan’s syndrome is an example of such a disease. Some genetic diseases that impair muscle functioning can cause hypotonia. Muscular dystrophy is an example of such type of disease in which in which the muscles become weak.
Some babies have hypotonia due to rare causes like metabolic diseases. The baby can have metabolic diseases like rickets, which occurs due to Vitamin D and calcium deficiency. Rickets impairs normal bone development of the baby.
Genetic Nerve Disease
Genetic nerve diseases can cause hypotonia at birth. Some nerve diseases like the muscular atrophy of the spine make the muscles weak, due to which the baby suffers from loss of movement. Another nerve disease that causes hypotonia is the Charcot-Marie Tooth disorder. In this inherited disease, there is problem in the myelin sheath that covers the nerves.
Hormone Problems and Malnutrition
Some babies have hormonal problems like hypothyroidism at birth. When the thyroid gland does not function properly, it causes hypotonia in the baby. Malnutrition can also cause hypotonia. If the diet of mother and child does not have sufficient protein, it causes malnutrition that leads to hypotonia.
Nerve Signal Problems
Hypotonia can occur when the nerves cannot transmit signals to the nerves properly. An example of such a disease is the Myasthenia gravis. Adult patients who have this disease have weakness and fatigue. If a baby is born to a woman who has this disease, the baby will also have this problem and may suffer from hypotonia. Adults who have muscle problems like multiple sclerosis and motor neurone disease have hypotonia that leads to impaired muscle tone.